Future School
Publications 한글

THE BIENNALE ARCHITETTURA 2021 CLOSES WITH OVER 300,000 VISITORS

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:45 AM

Profile of Kangwon Province

Kangwon province (강원도), located on the eastern coast of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), has been a region that is historically famous for its scenic natural environment. With a population of around 1.5 million people and a land area of 11,100km2, it is the third-smallest province among the 9 provinces of the DPRK. (excluding the provincial-level cities of Pyongyang and Rason) The province is subdivided into 2 cities and 15 counties.

Kangwon province is largely mountainous, with 80% of its land area being mountainous and only 10% arable. Traditionally, Kangwon has been a major agricultural and industrial region, including fishing, growing fruits such as persimmons, and heavy industries such as mining and shipbuilding. In recent years, the region has focused on developing its tourism industry, particularly a tourism resort around its major coastal city Wonsan and the Mount Kumgang Tourist Region. ​

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:40 AM

Why is it important to look at Kangwon Province?

​In recent years, tourism has been a key area of development for the Kangwon province. Kangwon has a wealth of natural resources and historical sites which makes it an attractive region for tourists. Since 2014, much of the region’s focus has been centred on the development of ‘Wonsan Tourism Zone’, in particular a tourism resort along the Kalma Peninsula. The high-profile project has been touted as the catalyst for economic development along North Korea’s east coast. Several inter-Korea projects, including railway networks have been planned to tap on the region’s potential.

Additionally, DPRK leader Kim Jong-un sees Kangwon province as a priority region for development. Apart from the tourism sector, the DPRK government claims to be focusing on manufacturing and food industries as areas of growth. It has also invested resources to bolster its aging infrastructure.​

However, efforts to develop Kangwon’s tourism potential might be hindered by the lack of basic infrastructure including power, transportation and communications, and the disparity in development between inland and coastal regions of Kangwon.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:40 AM

What has Choson Exchange done in Kangwon Province?

​Choson Exchange, a Singapore based non-profit group, has conducted several training programs in Wonsan and led study visits to help Wonsan policy makers and business leaders to help them leverage the potential of Kangwon’s growth.

2013 - 2015
Conducted training programs in Wonsan

2014
Brought Wonsan Tourism Zone policy makers to Singapore and Vietnam for study trip

2016
Workshops and study trips contributed to Wonsan SEZ taxation laws for foreign ownership of land

2019
Revisited Kangwon province with partners

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:42 AM

How can we harness the development potential of (Northern) Kangwon Province?

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:21 AM

A research and development roadmap for Kangwon province led by Choson Exchange.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:21 AM

Research

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:38 AM

Kangwon Key Industries

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:53 AM

Key Industries

Understanding Kangwon Province’s economic potential and challenges cannot be done without having a comprehensive grasp of the different industries that exist in the region. Explore Kangwon Province’s 4 different industries – Tourism, Energy, Manufacturing, and Basic Infrastructure – through our interactive maps where we identify more than 150 facilities in the region.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:46 AM

Tourism Industry Comparison

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:07 AM

Comparisons Between Pyonggang and Kangwon

Tourism
In order to better assess the future needs of Kangwon Province in its industrial capacity, we can compare the province to the city of Pyongyang, where many of North Korea’s 200,000 tourists visit every year. If North Korea aims to host 1 million tourists via the Wonsan-Kalma International Airport by 2025, Kangwon Province must build up its tourist, manufacturing, energy, and infrastructural facilities to be on par with Pyongyang’s.

Manufacturing
While Pyongyang easily exceeds Kangwon in the number of manufacturing sites, we still see an impressive spread of manufacturing activity in Kangwon. It is also highly likely that a large portion of the manufacturing activities in Kangwon have not been captured in our research.

Energy
One of the most notable memories retold by foreign tourists of Pyongyang is the city’s frequent power shortages, which naturally leads us to question if Kangwon can ever meet or exceed Pyongyang’s capacity in energy production. Pyongyang alone has around 20 power plants that serve the city while only 10 plants are known to currently exist in the eastern coast of Kangwon.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:09 AM

Challenges

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:13 AM

Challenges

Need for Basic Infrastructure
​Kangwon has been plagued by several infrastructural issues which impede its growth. Due to the fact that it is away from Pyongyang, much needed energy, infrastructure and resources are often diverted to other major cities across the DPRK, which puts Kangwon at a less advantageous position for development.

Electricity Transmission to Inland Region
There are three power plants in Kangwon province, all of which are hydroelectric plants, near Wonsan, Mount Kumgang and Tongchon. With a total population of 1.5M in Kumgang province, the electricity shortfall is significant​.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:13 AM

Coast vs Inland

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:28 AM

Coast vs Inland

Inter-Korea Rail Project Context
Despite existing challenges in Kangwon Province, there are several ongoing developmental projects in Kangwon that will be crucial to the region’s development in the next decade. First is the Inter-Korean Railway Project, born out of the 2018 Panmunjom Declaration, which promoted travel between the two Koreas through the connection of the Donghae and Gyeongui Line. The Donghae Line, which sits on the east coast of the peninsula, is a strategic infrastructural development for North Korea, as it can potentially serve as the main pathway for South Korean tourists to not only Mt. Kumkang but also Wonsan. While the Line necessitates several years for it to completely modernize, South Korea has been extremely proactive in its effort in connecting the railway from Kangneung to its most northern city of Jejin near the DMZ.

Connectivity
The most significant feature of the cities in inner Kangwon is its connectivity. The availability of the Kangwon Line allows for transport to major cities like Wonsan and Munchon while the Chyeongnyon Inchon Line offers direct connectivity to the capital, Pyongyang. While these cities do not currently retain sufficient infrastructure for tourists, the potential for the development of inner Kangwon is still worth exploring as South Korea is open to connecting the Kangwon Line with the railroads in the South.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:31 AM

Economic Roadmap

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:31 AM

Economic Roadmap

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:34 AM

Tourism as the Anchor of Kangwon Province’s Economic Development

The DPRK stands to benefit from developing Kangwon Province into a regional tourism hub, focusing on Wonsan and the Mount Kumgang resort regions.

The economic effect of tourism in the DPRK is significant. In 2018, 200,000 foreign tourists visited DPRK, largely bolstered by Chinese tourists. In 2015, DPRK Leader Kim Jong-un established an ambitious goal of attracting 1 million tourists per year to visit Wonsan. While Kangwon needs significant resources and development to achieve this goal, there are opportunities to be tapped.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:37 AM

Roadmap Components

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:44 AM

Roadmap Components

There are six areas which need to be developed to fully support Kangwon’s tourism growth, namely infrastructure, tourism facilities, production, retail, talent grooming and tourism promotion. They could be seen as the building blocks of tourism development.

There are both thematic linkages and inter-linkages between each component. While the development of each area (e.g. infrastructure and retail) could be separate projects or trends, they are mutually reinforcing (e.g. supply chain development), and together benefits the growth of the tourism core.

The goal of the economic roadmap is to identify the linkages between each component and find ways to grow and strengthen these linkages.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 04:44 AM

How can tourism infrastructure act as an enabler for dialogue and exchanges?

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:16 AM

Summer 2021 design studio at Singapore University of Technology and Design.

Calvin Chua — 2021.5.14 03:17 AM

Studio Brief

The current pandemic has grounded tourism activities to a halt. While countries that rely economically on tourism have suffered, the current pause in global tourism activity has also provided us with an opportunity to rethink and redefine the future of the tourism industry as a sustainable practice. One that moves away from a consumption model towards a contribution model, where tourism sustains and strengthens existing social, political and environmental conditions.

In partnership with the Gangwon Development Initiative, exhibiting at the Venice Biennale 2021 Korean Pavilion, we will envision the future of post-pandemic tourism through the context of Gangwon, a divided province on the Korean peninsula for the past 70 years. Despite its division, Gangwon province has also been the site of experimentation for diplomatic reproachment since the late 1990s. Tourism was used as the tool for this experimentation, where dedicated resorts were built for South Korean tourists to visit Northern Gangwon province. However, the experiment has been stalled due to wider geopolitical tensions.

As noted by several analysts, one reason for these failures can be attributed to the focus on centrally planned large-scale tourism zones and infrastructure projects that are acutely exposed to the pressures of domestic politics and international geopolitics. A new model of development is sorely needed, one that relies on smaller scale, decentralised urban interventions that enables exchanges and dialogues between visitors.

Therefore, the central interest of this studio is to design new forms of tourism architecture. Can tourism be the stimulus for post-pandemic economy recovery and a diplomatic restart for a troubled region? How do we design smaller-scale tourism infrastructure for dialogues and exchanges for peacebuilding?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:11 AM

Ecological Tourism: Ecological and reforestation projects are one of the few areas of cooperation between both Koreas. How do we design research centres for collaboration on nature and biodiversity protection along the mountain range?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 04:25 AM

Educational Tourism: Building on Gangwon’s province plan for a Wonsan-Chuncheon university belt, how do we design tourism schools that allow for training and interaction?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 04:26 AM

Medical Tourism: Southern Gangwon province is a popular destination for medical tourism, where the natural landscapes provide an integrated medical and healing therapy infrastructure. How do we design recovery centres across Gangwon province that further tap on the natural landscape for recovery?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 04:26 AM

Aviation Tourism: Divided by the mountain range, the eastern coast of Korea has less rail and road infrastructure, as such, the airports serve as gateways into Gangwon province. How do we conceive the functions of Wonsan Airport (north) and Yangyang Airport (south) as twin gateways? How do we design urban activators along Gangwon coastal highway to connect both airports?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 04:27 AM

The studio began the semester by uncovering architecture’s long-standing relation to the tourism industry. From ancient pilgrimages to leisure travel and present-day MICE, the evolution of tourism was documented through analysing supporting building types and urban spaces. The aim of this exercise was to provide a quick overview of the tourism ecosystem through the lenses of spaces, protocols, operations and experiences.

Subsequently, the studio applied the same method of analysis to Gangwon province as an attempt to understand the current impasse with tourism diplomacy for the region. Particular emphasis was given to spatially analysing negative encounters between hosts and visitors in these facilities, which
resulted in the eventual closure. Supporting the typological building analysis of existing tourism infrastructure, a cartographic survey was performed for the region, revealing the interconnections between physical, social, political, economic, environmental conditions of the thematic context (tourism) and site context (Gangwon region).

This was followed by defining a collective narrative and urban framework for the region, centring on tourism with the mountain range and coastal belt as a development area. The studio was subsequently divided into smaller groups to critically respond to four types of tourism in Gangwon province through a set of develop architectural proposals. Going beyond resorts for mass tourism, students designed spaces that facilitates cooperation and interaction. Working at multiple scales from 1:100 to 1:10000, the proposals encompass a development strategy that is defined through specific architectural typologies and urban forms.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:14 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 06:59 AM

Taxonomy of Korean War / Unification-Related Points of Attraction along the DMZ

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:40 AM

Points of Attraction Specifically within the Kangwon-Gangwon Province

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:41 AM

A Densified Tourism Belt

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:41 AM

Cheap thrills for the tourists that visit North Korea as a piece of entertainment. South Korean defined narratives within the spaces.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:42 AM

Scripting disorder for peace. Framing the scenes for Reunification. Compositing elements of One Korea.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:43 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:44 AM

Pyongyang Film Studios

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:45 AM

Film Studios around the World

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:45 AM

Goseong Film Studios Belt

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:46 AM

Programmatic Requirements of a Film Studio

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:46 AM

Distribution of Facilities

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:46 AM

Main Transit Axes

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:47 AM

Goseong Film Strip Site Plan

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:47 AM

Beneficiaries of Goseong Film Strip

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:48 AM

Goseong Film Strip Site Plan

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:48 AM

Goseong Film Strip Ground Floor Plan

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:48 AM

Staff Shop

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:49 AM

Pre-Production Office

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:49 AM

Sound Stage 1

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:49 AM

Setting for Film and Tourism

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:50 AM

Interfaces of Tourism and Film Production

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:50 AM

Structural System

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:51 AM

Scenario 1

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:51 AM

Scenario 2

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:52 AM

Scenario 3

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:52 AM

Where film and tourism meet

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:52 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 06:59 AM

Centralised Capitals

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:10 AM

New Centre for Korea?

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:10 AM

Four Main Airports

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:15 AM

Proposed Train Lines

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:16 AM

A New Line

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:16 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:17 AM

Cheorwon Special Agricultural Zone (CSAZ) looks to Cheorwon’s origins, utilizing agriculture as a tool for diplomacy and tourism. A reimagined centre; not a new metropolis, but a site for reconciliation that employs the intrinsic characteristics of this agricultural flatland.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 06:58 AM

Contrast Between the North and South Koreas Boundaries

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:18 AM

Existing Site Conditions

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:19 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:19 AM

Taxonomy of Existing Infrastructure

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:19 AM

Infrastructures of Production and Tourism

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:20 AM

Our proposal addresses two existing forms of tourism: the Work Holiday and Agri-Tourism, and accommodates 1000 tourists annually across five farming communes.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:01 AM

5 Plots for 1000 People

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:21 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:21 AM

Typical Circadian Schedule of Visitors

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:23 AM

These foreign Seasonal Work Tourists are work holidayers from various regions including North Korea, who reside in the commune for a five-month period, working with and learning from experienced South Korean hosts.

Additionally short-term guests; Agri-Tourists, come as an escape from the city, and to experience life on a farm.

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:21 AM

Ground Floor Plan

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:23 AM

Circulation by Visitor Type

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:23 AM

Structural System

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:24 AM

Structural Details

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:24 AM

Workers' Quarters

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:24 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:25 AM

Courtyard House + Guest Room

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:25 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:25 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:25 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 06:59 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:25 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:26 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:26 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:26 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:27 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:27 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:27 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:28 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:28 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:28 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:30 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:30 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:30 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:31 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:31 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:32 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 08:35 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 07:00 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:00 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:00 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:00 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:00 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:01 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:01 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:01 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:01 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:02 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:02 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:02 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:02 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:03 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:03 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:03 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:03 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:19 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:19 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:24 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:28 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:29 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:30 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:30 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:31 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:31 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:32 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:32 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:33 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:44 AM

Kalma Wonsan Beach Resorts vs Proposed Everyday Tourism

Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:46 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:46 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:47 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:48 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:48 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:48 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:48 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:48 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:49 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:49 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:49 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:49 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:50 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:50 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:51 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:51 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:51 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:51 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:51 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:52 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 09:52 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:05 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:05 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:05 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:06 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:06 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:06 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:06 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:06 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:07 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:07 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:07 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:07 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:08 AM
Calvin Chua — 2021.10.29 10:08 AM
Kangwon Development Initiative

Kangwon Development Initiative

Online, Generative Dialogue

Engaging north korean provinces as a peace-building process

Overview

Looking beyond the monumental capital, North Korean provinces have been sites of urban and policy experimentations over the past decade. The North Korean government has been pouring significant state resources into developing its provincial regions through special economic zones. Kangwon province has been the central focus of these efforts, with the development of tourism infrastructure on the Wonsan-Kalma peninsula and a string of cities along the eastern coast.

Building on the region’s development, Choson Exchange has been conducting economic policy and urban development training programmes in Kangwon province since late 2013. Kangwon Development Initiative is the latest project initiated by Choson Exchange, with the aim of developing a five-year engagement and development roadmap for the region. Led by Calvin Chua, together with Alysha Park and Howard Fu, with cartography support from Spatial Anatomy, the project tracks the development of industry and infrastructure challenges facing the region. Informed by the research analysis, an engagement roadmap charts strategies for the region’s development along with platforms for collaboration with international parties as part of a peacebuilding process.

Exhibition program participants

Happening now

Mucca, The Korean Pavilion's friendly neighbor, 2021

Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 06:01 AM

Fin / 끝

Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 06:00 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:50 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:49 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:49 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:49 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:49 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:48 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:48 AM
Future School Office — The Korean Pavilion Documentation — 2021.12.7 05:48 AM

Exhibition programs

Future School